Abstract: Colorectal cancer is a significant public health concern. As a multistage and multifactorial disease, environmental and genetic factors interact at each stage of the process, and an individual's lifestyle also plays a relevant role. We set out to review the scientific evidence to study the need to investigate the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?) gene as a biomarker of the physical activity's (PA) effect on colorectal cancer. PA is a protective factor against colorectal cancer and usually increases the expression of PGC-1? This gene has pleiotropic roles and is the main regulator of mitochondrial functions. The development of colorectal cancer has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; in addition, alterations in this organelle are associated with colorectal cancer risk factors, such as obesity, decreased muscle mass, and the aging process. These are affected by PA acting, among other aspects, on insulin sensitivity and oxygen reactive species/redox balance. Therefore, this gene demands special attention in the understanding of its operation in the consensual protective effect of PA in colorectal cancer. A significant amount of indirect evidence points to PGC-1? as a potential biomarker in the PA-protective effect on colorectal cancer. The article focuses on the possible involvement of PGC-1? in the protective role that physical activity has on colorectal cancer. This is an important topic both in relation to advances in prevention of the development of this widespread disease and in its therapeutic treatment. We hope to generate an initial hypothesis for future studies associated with physical activity-related mechanisms that may be involved in the development or prevention of colorectal cancer. PGC-1? is highlighted because it is the main regulator of mitochondrial functions. This organelle, on one hand, is positively stimulated by physical activity; on the other hand, its dysfunction or reduction increases the probability of developing colorectal cancer. Therefore, we consider the compilation of existing information about the possible ways to understand the mechanisms of this gene to be highly relevant. This study is based on evidence of PGC-1? and physical activity, on PGC-1? and colorectal cancer, on colorectal cancer and physical activity/inactivity, and the absence of studies that have sought to relate all of these variables.
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