Abstract: Background: This is a prospective, multicenter, observational study in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive kidney transplant recipients with pretransplant CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI) receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG). We aimed to investigate posttransplant CMV-CMI over time and the impact of the dose-dependent ATG.
Methods: CMV-CMI was assessed at days +30, +45, +60, and +90 after transplantation with the QuantiFERON-CMV assay. A reactive result (interferon-? [IFN-?] ? 0.2 IU/mL) indicated a positive CMV-CMI.
Results: A total of 78 positive CMV-CMI patients were enrolled in the study, of which 59.5% had a positive CMV-CMI at day +30 and 82.7% at day +90. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ATG dose was not associated with positive CMV-CMI at any point. However, pretransplant IFN-? level (>12 IU/mL vs ?12 IU/mL) was associated with positive CMV-CMI at day +30 (odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.1-53.3; P < .001). In addition, all the patients who did not recover CMV-CMI at day +90 had a pretransplant IFN-? level ?12 IU/mL.
Conclusions: More than half of CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients receiving ATG recover (or maintain) CMV-CMI by the first month after transplantation. The pretransplant IFN-? level, but not the ATG dose, shows a strong association with the kinetics of this recovery.