Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine whether a type of exercise favors better compliance with a prescribed diet, higher eating-related motivation, healthier diet composition or greater changes in body composition in overweight and obese subjects. One hundred and sixty-two (males n = 79), aged 18-50 years, were randomized into four intervention groups during 24 weeks: strength, endurance, combined strength + endurance and guideline-based physical activity; all in combination with a 25-30% caloric restriction diet. A food frequency questionnaire and a "3-day food and drink record" were applied pre- and post-intervention. Diet and exercise-related motivation levels were evaluated with a questionnaire developed for this study. Body composition was assessed by DXA and habitual physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage decreased and lean body mass increased after the intervention, without differences by groups. No interactions were observed between intervention groups and time; all showing a decreased in energy intake (p < 0.001). Carbohydrate and protein intakes increased, and fat intake decreased from pre- to post-intervention without significant interactions with intervention groups, BMI category or gender (p < 0.001). Diet-related motivation showed a tendency to increase from pre- to post-intervention (70.0 ± 0.5 vs 71.0 ± 0.6, p = 0.053), without significant interactions with intervention groups, BMI or gender. Regarding motivation for exercise, gender x time interactions were observed (F(1,146) = 7.452, p = 0.007): Women increased their motivation after the intervention (pre: 17.6 ± 0.3, post: 18.2 ± 0.3), while men maintained it. These findings suggest that there are no substantial effects of exercise type on energy intake, macronutrient selection or body composition changes. After a six-month weight loss program, individuals did not reduce their motivation related to diet or exercise, especially women. Individuals who initiate a long-term exercise program do not increase their energy intake in a compensatory fashion, if diet advices are included.
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