Abstract: Hypophosphataemic rickets is a heterogeneous group of entities characterized by rickets or osteomalacia due to a phosphate deficit caused mainly by decreased renal reabsorption. They are also characterized by defective intestinal absorption of calcium and rickets or osteomalacia unresponsive to cholecalciferol. These metabolic alterations lead to growth retardation, bone pain and deformities, and short stature. For a correct diagnosis and treatment of all forms of rickets, the basic aspects of pathophysiology of the calcium-phosphorus metabolism and the relevance of the bone-kidney axis modulated by the presence of phosphaturic agents need to be known. Diagnosis of these diseases includes clinical assessment, blood and urine analytical tests, and bone x-ray. The aim of this article is to briefly describe the pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and clinical forms of hypophosphataemic rickets, proposing a diagnosis algorithm that can help in the clinical practice.