Abstract: Future projections of coastal erosion, which are one of the most demanded climate services in coastal areas, are mainly developed using top-down approaches. These approaches consist of undertaking a sequence of steps that include selecting emission or concentration scenarios and climate models, correcting models bias, applying downscaling methods, and implementing coastal erosion models. The information involved in this modelling chain cascades across steps, and so does related uncertainty, which accumulates in the results. Here, we develop long-term multi-ensemble probabilistic coastal erosion projections following the steps of the top-down approach, factorise, decompose and visualise the uncertainty cascade using real data and analyse the contribution of the uncertainty sources (knowledge-based and intrinsic) to the total uncertainty. We find a multi-modal response in long-term erosion estimates and demonstrate that not sampling internal climate variability?s uncertainty sufficiently could lead to a truncated outcomes range, affecting decision-making. Additionally, the noise arising from internal variability (rare outcomes) appears to be an important part of the full range of results, as it turns out that the most extreme shoreline retreat events occur for the simulated chronologies of climate forcing conditions. We conclude that, to capture the full uncertainty, all sources need to be properly sampled considering the climate-related forcing variables involved, the degree of anthropogenic impact and time horizon targeted.
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