Abstract: Ketamine has rapid and robust antidepressant effects. However, unwanted psychotomimetic effects limit its widespread use. Hence, several studies examined whether GluN2B-subunit selective NMDA antagonists would exhibit a better therapeutic profile. Although preclinical work has revealed some of the mechanisms of action of ketamine at cellular and molecular levels, the impact on brain circuitry is poorly understood. Several neuroimaging studies have examined the functional changes in the brain induced by acute administration of ketamine and Ro 25-6981 (a GluN2B-subunit selective antagonist), but the changes in the microstructure of gray and white matter have received less attention. Here, the effects of ketamine and Ro 25-6981 on gray and white matter integrity in male Sprague-Dawley rats were determined using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). In addition, DWI-based structural brain networks were estimated and connectivity metrics were computed at the regional level. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to determine whether changes in myelin basic protein (MBP) and neurofilament heavy-chain protein (NF200) may underlie connectivity changes. In general, ketamine and Ro 25-6981 showed some opposite structural alterations, but both compounds coincided only in increasing the fractional anisotropy in infralimbic prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus. These changes were associated with increments of NF200 in deep layers of the infralimbic cortex (together with increased MBP) and the dorsal raphe nucleus. Our results suggest that the synthesis of NF200 and MBP may contribute to the formation of new dendritic spines and myelination, respectively. We also suggest that the increase of fractional anisotropy of the infralimbic and dorsal raphe nucleus areas could represent a biomarker of a rapid antidepressant response.