Abstract: Background & Aims: Mitochondria are the major organelles for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been described as a key factor in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. The methylation-controlled J-protein (MCJ) is a mitochondrial protein that interacts with and represses the function of complex I of the electron transport chain. The relevance of MCJ in the pathology of cholestasis has not yet been explored. Methods: We studied the relationship between MCJ and cholestasis-induced liver injury in liver biopsies from patients with chronic cholestatic liver diseases, and in livers and primary hepatocytes obtained from WT and MCJ-KO mice. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as an animal model of cholestasis, and primary hepatocytes were treated with toxic doses of bile acids. We evaluated the effect of MCJ silencing for the treatment of cholestasis-induced liver injury. Results: Elevated levels of MCJ were detected in the liver tissue of patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease when compared with normal liver tissue. Likewise, in mouse models, the hepatic levels of MCJ were increased. After BDL, MCJ-KO animals showed significantly decreased inflammation and apoptosis. In an in vitro model of bile-acid induced toxicity, we observed that the loss of MCJ protected mouse primary hepatocytes from bile acid-induced mitochondrial ROS over-production and ATP depletion, enabling higher cell viability. Finally, the in vivo inhibition of the MCJ expression, following BDL, showed reduced liver injury and a mitigation of the main cholestatic characteristics. Conclusions: We demonstrated that MCJ is involved in the progression of cholestatic liver injury, and our results identified MCJ as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate the liver injury caused by cholestasis. Lay summary: In this study, we examine the effect of mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition by MCJ on bile acid-induced liver toxicity. The loss of MCJ protects hepatocytes against apoptosis, mitochondrial ROS overproduction, and ATP depletion as a result of bile acid toxicity. Our results identify MCJ as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate liver injury in cholestatic liver diseases.