Abstract: Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the neuropathological mechanisms responsible for the deficits in cognition and neuronal function in Down syndrome (DS). The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse replicates multiple DS phenotypes including hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits and similar brain oxidative status. To better understand the hippocampal oxidative profile in the adult TS mouse, we analyzed cellular OS-associated alterations in hippocampal granule cells (GCs), a neuronal population that plays an important role in memory formation and that is particularly affected in DS. For this purpose, we used biochemical, molecular, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopy techniques. Our results indicate that TS GCs show important OS-associated alterations in the systems essential for neuronal homeostasis: DNA damage response and proteostasis, particu larly of the proteasome and lysosomal system. Specifically, TS GCs showed: (i) increased DNA damage, (ii) reorganization of nuclear proteolytic factories accompanied by a decline in proteasome activity and cytoplasmic aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins, (iii) formation of lysosomal-related structures containing lipid droplets of cytotoxic peroxidation products, and (iv) mitochondrial ultrastructural defects. These alterations could be implicated in enhanced cellular senescence, accelerated aging and neurodegeneration, and the early development of Alzheimer?s disease neuropathology present in TS mice and the DS population.
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