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Gender and public perception of disasters: a multiple hazards exploratory study of EU citizens

Abstract: To explore gender influence on individual risk perception of multiple hazards and personal attitudes towards disaster preparedness across EU citizens. Method: An online survey was distributed to 2485 participants from Spain, France, Poland, Sweden and Italy. The survey was divided into two parts. The first part examined perceived likelihood (L), perceived personal impact (I) and perceived self-efficacy (E) towards disasters due to extreme weather conditions (flood, landslide and storm), fire, earthquake, hazardous materials accidents, and terrorist attacks. The overall risk rating for each specific hazard was measured through the following equation R = (L × I)/E and the resulting scores were brought into the range between 0 and 1. The second part explored people's reactions to the Pros and Cons of preparedness to compute the overall attitudes of respondents towards preparation (expressed as a ratio between -1 and 1). Results: Although we found gender variations on concerns expressed as the likelihood of the occurrence, personal consequences and self-efficacy, the overall risks were judged significantly higher by females in all hazards (p < 0.01). We also found that, in general, most respondents (both males and females) were in favour of preparedness. More importantly, despite the gender differences in risk perception, there were no significant differences in the attitudes towards preparedness. We found weak correlations between risks perceived and attitudes towards preparedness (rho < 0.20). The intersectional analysis showed that young and adult females perceived higher risks than their gender counterparts at the same age. There were also gender differences in preparedness, i.e., females in higher age ranges are more motivated for preparedness than men in lower age ranges. We also found that risk perception for all hazards in females was significantly higher than in males at the same education level. We found no significant differences between sub-groups in the pros and cons of getting ready for disasters. However, females at a higher level of education have more positive attitudes towards preparedness. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender along with other intersecting factors (e.g., age and education) still shape differences in risk perception and attitudes towards disasters across the EU population. Overall, the presented results policy actions focus on promoting specific DRR policies and practices (bottom-up participatory and learning processes) through interventions oriented to specific target groups from a gender perspective.

 Autoría: Cuesta A., Alvear D., Carnevale A., Amon F.,

 Fuente: Safety, 2022, 8(3), 59

 Editorial: MDPI

 Fecha de publicación: 8/5/2022

 Nº de páginas: 17

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.3390/safety8030059

 ISSN: 2313-576X

 Proyecto europeo: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/832576/EU/ADAPTED SITUATION AWARENESS TOOLS AND TAILORED TRAINING SCENARIOS FOR INCREASING CAPABILITIES AND ENHANCING THE PROTECTION OF FIRST RESPONDERS/ASSISTANCE/

Autoría

CARNEVALE, ANTONIO

AMON, FRANCINE