Abstract: The Oiola archeological site, located in the mining complex of La Arboleda (Biscay, North Spain) was an important iron smelting center from the Roman Period to theMiddleAges and even in more current times (19th-20th centuries). Tap-slags and some plano-convex slags were identified as smelting slags. Samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron-dispersive spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to perform a mineralogical and textural characterization. Additionally, thermogravimetric and thermodiffraction analyses were carried out to determine furnace operating temperatures. The mineral assemblage reflects furnace temperatures and cooling rates and the addition of quartz as the main flux to decrease the melting temperature of the iron ore. The comparison of slags from the Roman Period and the Middle Age reveals changes in the pyrometallurgical process through time.
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