Abstract: High-resolution pollen, macrofossil and charcoal data, combined with multivariate analysis, were used to reconstruct Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics at Manaderos. The studied mire is located in a highly valued location in the supra-Mediterranean belt of the Gredos Range (central Iberian Peninsula). The record started at 1260?calendar years (cal yrs) BP, according to eight radiocarbon dates, with the occurrence of an open Quercus pyrenaica forest and Pinus nigra stands. The palynological data show a dramatic change ?380?cal yrs BP, when the oak forest was progressively replaced by a maritime pine one. The interpretation of this record is related to an increase in agricultural and livestock activities and changes in the role of fire, thus Pyrenean oak canopy was consumed by fires providing openings for Pinus pinaster, better adapted to fire. The results are compared with other sequences from the Spanish Central System in order to better understand the past dynamics of the main forest constituents and to provide a critical view of the role of fire, anthropic dynamics and climatic events.