Abstract: There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to improve the cognitive dysfunction of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Due to the overexpression of several chromosome 21 genes, cellular and systemic oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most important neuropathological processes that contributes to the cognitive deficits and multiple neuronal alterations in DS. In this condition, OS is an early event that negatively affects brain development, which is also aggravated in later life stages, contributing to neurodegeneration, accelerated aging, and the development of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Thus, therapeutic interventions that reduce OS have been proposed as a promising strategy to avoid neurodegeneration and to improve cognition in DS patients. Several antioxidant molecules have been proven to be effective in preclinical studies; however, clinical trials have failed to show evidence of the efficacy of different antioxidants to improve cognitive deficits in individuals with DS. In this review we summarize preclinical studies of cell cultures and mouse models, as well as clinical studies in which the effect of therapies which reduce oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations on the cognitive dysfunction associated with DS have been assessed.
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