Abstract: Official documents in several educational systems reflect the importance of integrating Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) and consider project-based learning (PBL) as a way of integrating such disciplines in the classroom. Although STEAM-PBL has been characterized and evaluated in different ways, its impact on school mathematics teaching remains unclear. Mathematics is recognized as the fundamental basis of other disciplines; however, many students still perceive it as a difficult subject and abandon it. To analyze STEAM-PBL classroom implementation from a school mathematics standpoint, we examined 41 classroom experiences from 11 Spanish secondary education teachers (five in-field mathematics teachers), who participated in a STEAM training program for more than 4 years. To frame this study, Thibaut et al.'s (J STEM Educ 3(1):02, 2018) and Schoenfeld's (Educ Res 43(8):404-412, 2014) characterizations of welldesigned and implemented projects, respectively, were employed. The results showed that in-field mathematics teachers avoided transdisciplinary projects in which school mathematics is difficult to address, while out-of-field teachers tended to overlook the mathematics in interdisciplinary projects. Unlike out-of-field teachers, mathematics teachers often eluded design-based learning processes for deeply exploiting school mathematics. The latter teachers promoted high cognitive demands and positive perceptions about mathematics in projects where formative environments were generated through discussion and a meaningful feedback loop.
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