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Global diagnosis of nitrate pollution in groundwater and review of removal technologies

Abstract: Clean water and sanitation for the world population is one of the most important challenges established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations since worldwide, one in three people do not have access to safe drinking water. Groundwater, one of the main sources of fresh water, has been considerably damaged by human activities. Nevertheless, while numerous plants are globally aimed at removing pollutants from surface waters, a much scarcer number of facilities have focused on groundwater remediation. Nowadays, there is increasing concern about the presence of nitrates (NO3-) in groundwaters as a consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources, such as sewage or industrial wastewater discharge. In this context, the selection and development of highly effective and low-cost solutions for the sustainable management of groundwater resources need to be addressed. Thus, this work collects data from the literature regarding the presence of nitrates in groundwater, and, simultaneously, it reviews the main alternatives available to remove NO3- from groundwater sources. A total of 292 sites have been analyzed categorized by continents, carefully discussing the possible origins of nitrate pollution. In addition, a discussion is carried out of the different technologies currently employed to treat groundwater, highlighting the progress made and the main challenges to be overcome. Finally, the review gathers the data available in the literature for nitrate treatment plants at full-scale.

 Autoría: Abascal E., Gómez-Coma L., Ortiz I., Ortiz A.,

 Fuente: Science of the Total Environment, 2022, 810, 152233

 Editorial: Elsevier

 Fecha de publicación: 01/03/2022

 Nº de páginas: 25

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152233

 ISSN: 0048-9697,1879-1026

 Proyecto español: RTI2018-093310-B-100

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152233