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Analysis and modeling of sunscreen ingredients' behavior in an aquatic environment

Abstract: Sunscreens have become a product based on increasingly complex formulations that include, among many ingredients, a mixture of UV filters to provide optimal sun ultraviolet radiation protection. A significant group of scientific works deals with the impact of UV filters in aquatic media. However, the knowledge of the mechanism and kinetics of the compound's direct release, fate, and its transformation and interaction with living organisms is necessary to assess its environmental occurrence and behavior and to predict potential and real impacts on the aquatic environment. This review outlines the existing analysis and modeling of the release and behavior of sunscreen's ingredients in the marine environment, including aquatic organisms. The physical-chemical properties, photodegradation, and release kinetics of particles and chemicals into the water are studied by hydrodynamic and kinetic models. Direct photolysis of chemicals is modeled as pseudo-first-order kinetics, while the indirect pathway by the reaction of sunscreen with reactive oxygen species is described as second-order kinetics. The interaction of UV filters with marine biota is studied mainly by toxicokinetic models, which predict their bio-accumulation in the organisms' tissues. These models consider the chemicals' uptake and excretion, as well as their transfer between different internal animal organs, as a first-order kinetic process. The studies analyzed in the present work represent a driver of change for the beauty and personal care industry, in order to seek new ecological alternatives through the application of R&D tactics.

 Fuente: Oceans, 2022, 3(3), 340-363

 Editorial: MDPI

 Fecha de publicación: 02/08/2022

 Nº de páginas: 24

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.3390/oceans3030024

 ISSN: 2673-1924