Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of fractures. MSCs extracted from patients with osteoporotic hip fractures or hip osteoarthritis undergoing hip replacement surgeries were cultured and injected into mice with femoral fracture. Two experimental models were established, one for the systemic administration of MSCs (n = 29) and another one for local administration (n = 30). Fracture consolidation was assessed by micro-CT and histology. The degree of radiological consolidation and corticalization was better with MSCs from osteoporosis than from osteoarthritis, being significant after systemic administration (p = 0.0302 consolidation; p = 0.0243 corticalization). The histological degree of consolidation was also better with MSCs from osteoporosis than from osteoarthritis. Differences in histological scores after systemic infusion were as follows: Allen, p = 0.0278; Huo, p = 0.3471; and Bone Bridge, p = 0.0935. After local administration at the fracture site, differences in histological scores were as follows: Allen, p = 0.0764; Huo, p = 0.0256; and Bone Bridge, p = 0.0012. As osteoporosis and control groups were similar, those differences depended on an inhibitory influence by MSCs from patients with osteoarthritis. In conclusion, we found an unexpected impairment of consolidation induced by MSCs from patients with osteoarthritis. However, MSCs from patients with osteoporosis compared favorably with cells from patients with osteoarthritis. In other words, based on this study and previous studies, MSCs from patients with osteoporosis do not appear to have worse bone-regenerating capabilities than MSCs from non-osteoporotic individuals of similar age.
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