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Balancing the electromagnetic field exposure in wireless multi-hop networks: an EMF-aware routing scheme

Abstract: This work is situated at the conjunction of the fields of distributed systems, telecommunications, and mathematical modeling, aiming to offer solutions to the problem of people's overexposure to electro-magnetic fields (EMF) radiation. In this paper, we propose a new routing scheme for wireless multi-hop networks, which seeks a fairer distribution of the exposure to electromagnetic fields, by leveraging a combination of the transmitted power and the accumulated exposure as a routing metric. We carry out a holistic approach, including: (1) an algorithmic study, (2) an analytical model of the aforementioned novel routing metric, and (3) the specification of a routing protocol. We make a performance assessment of our novel routing protocol and the corresponding algorithm, by means of an extensive simulation campaign over the NS-3 simulator. The obtained results yield that the proposed novel solution is able to not only fairly distribute the exposure, but also to reduce its average value, thus enhancing the user experience. We also show that the power consumption using the EMF-aware proposed solution, based on Cycle Canceling Algorithm (CCA), and that observed with an approach seeking power reduction are alike. Indeed, even if there exist key-differences from the user experience's point of view between both routing approaches, there is no statistically relevant power increase between them. Thus, our solution manages to keep the consumed power at a low level, and at the same time it reduces the overall nodes' exposure to EMF.

 Authorship: Iancu V., Diez L., Slusanschi E., Agüero R.,

 Fuente: Mathematics, 2022, 10(4), 668

 Publisher: MDPI

 Publication date: 21/02/2022

 No. of pages: 24

 Publication type: Article

 DOI: 10.3390/math10040668

 ISSN: 2227-7390

 Spanish project: RTI2018-093475-AI00