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In silico investigation and surmounting of lipopolysaccharide barrier in Gram-negative bacteria: how far has molecular dynamics come?

Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, has crucial implications on both antibiotic resistance and the overstimulation of the host innate immune system. Fighting against these global concerns calls for the molecular understanding of the barrier function and immunostimulatory ability of LPS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become an invaluable tool for uncovering important findings in LPS research. While the reach of MD simulations for investigating the immunostimulatory ability of LPS has been already outlined, little attention has been paid to the role of MD simulations for exploring its barrier function and synthesis. Herein, we give an overview about the impact of MD simulations on gaining insight into the shield role and synthesis pathway of LPS, which have attracted considerable attention to discover molecules able to surmount antibiotic resistance, either circumventing LPS defenses or disrupting its synthesis. We specifically focus on the enhanced sampling and free energy calculation methods that have been combined with MD simulations to address such research. We also highlight the use of special-purpose MD supercomputers, the importance of appropriate LPS and ions parameterization to obtain reliable results, and the complementary views that MD and wet-lab experiments provide. Thereby, this work, which covers the last five years of research, apart from outlining the phenomena and strategies that are being explored, evidences the valuable insights that are gained by MD, which may be useful to advance antibiotic design, and what the prospects of this in silico method could be in LPS research.

 Autoría: González-Fernández C., Bringas E., Oostenbrink C., Ortiz I.,

 Fuente: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 2022, 20, 5886-5901

 Editorial: Elsevier

 Año de publicación: 2022

 Nº de páginas: 16

 Tipo de publicación: Article

 DOI: 10.1016/j.csbj.2022.10.039

 ISSN: 2001-0370

 Proyecto español: RTI2018-093310-B-I00

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.10.039