To investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD).
We conducted the largest immunogenetic HLA-DRB1 and HLA-B study to date in a homogeneous cohort of 168 Caucasian patients with ASSD and 486 ethnically matched healthy controls by sequencing-based-typing.
A statistically significant increase of HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-B*08:01 alleles in patients with ASSD compared to healthy controls was disclosed (26.2% versus 12.2%, P = 1.56E?09, odds ratio?OR [95% confidence interval?CI] = 2.54 [1.84?3.50] and 21.4% versus 5.5%, P = 18.95E?18, OR [95% CI] = 4.73 [3.18?7.05]; respectively). Additionally, HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele was significantly decreased in patients with ASSD compared to controls (9.2% versus 17.5%, P = 0.0003, OR [95% CI] = 0.48 [0.31?0.72]). Moreover, a statistically significant increase of HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele in anti-Jo-1 positive compared to anti-Jo-1 negative patients with ASSD was observed (31.8% versus 15.5%, P = 0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.54 [1.39?4.81]). Similar findings were observed when HLA carrier frequencies were assessed. The HLA-DRB1*03:01 association with anti-Jo-1 was unrelated to smoking history. No HLA differences in patients with ASSD stratified according to the presence/absence of the most representative non-anti-Jo-1 anti-synthetase autoantibodies (anti-PL-12 and anti-PL-7), arthritis, myositis or interstitial lung disease were observed.
Our results support the association of the HLA complex with the susceptibility to ASSD
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