Abstract: The epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is dynamic as it depends on microbiological, host and healthcare system factors. The aim of this study was to update the information regarding the epidemiology of BSIs in Spain considering the type of acquisition. An observational, prospective cohort study in 26 Spanish hospitals from October 2016 through March 2017 including all episodes of BSI in adults was performed. Bivariate analyses stratified by type of acquisition were performed. Multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression. Overall, 6345 BSI episodes were included; 2510 (39.8%) were community-acquired (CA), 1661 (26.3%) were healthcare-associated (HCA) and 2056 (32.6%) hospital acquired (HA). The 30-day mortality rates were 11.6%, 19.5% and 22.0%, respectively. The median age of patients was 71 years (interquartile range 60?81 years) and 3656 (58.3%; 95% confidence interval 57.1?59.6%) occurred in males. The proportions according to patient sex varied according to age strata. Escherichia coli (43.8%), Klebsiella spp. (8.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.9%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (7.4%) were the most frequent pathogens. Multivariate analyses confirmed important differences between CA and HCA episodes, but also between HCA and HA episodes, in demographics, underlying conditions and aetiology. In conclusion, we have updated the epidemiological information regarding patients? profiles, underlying conditions, frequency of acquisition types and aetiological agents of BSI in Spain. HCA is confirmed as a distinct type of acquisition.
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