Abstract: Bioremediation of metaldehyde from drinking water using metaldehyde-degrading strains has recently emerged as a promising alternative. Whole-genome sequencing was used to obtain full genomes for metaldehyde degraders Acinetobacter calcoaceticus E1 and Sphingobium CMET-H. For the former, the genetic context of the metaldehyde-degrading genes had not been explored, while for the latter, none of the degrading genes themselves had been identified. In A. calcoaceticus E1, IS91 and IS6-family insertion sequences (ISs) were found surrounding the metaldehyde-degrading gene cluster located in plasmid pAME76. This cluster was located in closely-related plasmids and associated to identical ISs in most metaldehyde-degrading ?-and ?-Proteobacteria, indicating horizontal gene transfer (HGT). For Sphingobium CMET-H, sequence analysis suggested a phytanoyl-CoA family oxygenase as a metaldehyde-degrading gene candidate due to its close homology to a previously identified metaldehyde-degrading gene known as mahX. Heterologous gene expression in Escherichia coli alongside degradation tests verified its functional significance and the degrading gene homolog was henceforth called mahS. It was found that mahS is hosted within the conjugative plasmid pSM1 and its genetic context suggested a crossover between the metaldehyde and acetoin degradation pathways. Here, specific replicons and ISs responsible for maintaining and dispersing metaldehyde-degrading genes in ?, ? and ?-Proteobacteria through HGT were identified and described. In addition, a homologous gene implicated in the first step of metaldehyde utilisation in an ?-Proteobacteria was uncovered. Insights into specific steps of this possible degradation pathway are provided.