Abstract: Introduction: Nocardia nova complex has been associated with infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Infection can be localized or disseminated, affecting skin and soft tissues, the respiratory system, bones and joints, the circulatory system and especially the central nervous system. Ocular infections such as keratitis, scleritis, conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, orbital cellulitis and endophthalmitis due to Nocardia spp. are infrequently reported, and usually described after penetrating corneal trauma or ocular contact with plants and soils.
Case presentation: An immunocompetent male presented with a history of penetrating ocular trauma that had evolved to infectious endophthalmitis, which was refractory to different antibiotic treatments. No micro-organisms were isolated from repeated conjunctival smear and corneal scraping cultures between the ocular trauma (August 2014) and the endophthalmitis diagnosis (November 2015). After this period, N. nova sensu stricto was isolated in aqueous humour aspirate. Treatment was adjusted and clinical improvement was obtained after an adequate microbiological procedure, including an optimal sampling and an antimicrobial-susceptibility testing report.
Conclusion: Nocardia identification to the species level and performance of antimicrobial-susceptibility tests are both essential tools for treatment adjustment and clinical improvement.
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