Abstract: Introduction: Clinical and experimental evidence supports the presence of several gender differences in the pain experience.
Areas covered: The current paper discusses biological, psychological, emotional, and social differences according to gender and their relevance to TTH. Gender differences have also been observed in men and women with tension-type headache and they should be considered by clinicians managing this condition. It appears that multimodal treatment approaches lead to better outcomes in people with tension-type headache; however, management of tension-type headache should consider these potential gender differences. Different studies have observed the presence of complex interactions between tension-type headache, emotional stress, sleep, and burden and that these interactions are different between men and women.
Expert opinion: Based on current results, the authors hypothesize that treatment of men with tension-type headache should focus on the improvement of sleep quality and the level of depression whereas treatment of women with TTH should focus on nociceptive mechanisms and emotional/stressful factors. Future trials should investigate the proposed hypotheses.