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Acute Rejection Following Kidney Transplantation: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

Abstract: Although acute renal graft rejection rate has declined in the last years, and because an adequate therapy can improve graft outcome, its therapy remains as one of the most significant challenges for pharmacists and physicians taking care of transplant patients. Due to the lack of evidence highlighted by the available metaanalyses, we performed a narrative review focused on the basic mechanisms and current and future therapies of acute rejection in kidney transplantation. According to Kidney Disease/Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, both clinical and subclinical acute rejection episodes should be treated. Usually, high dose steroids and basal immunosuppression optimization are the first line of therapy in treating acute cellular rejection. Rabbit antithymocytic polyclonal globulins are used as rescue therapy for recurrent or steroid-resistant cellular rejection episodes. Current standard-of-care (SOC) therapy for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AbMR) is the combination of plasma exchange with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Since a significant rate of AbMR does not respond to SOC, different studies have analyzed the role of new drugs such as Rituximab, Bortezomib, Eculizumab and C1 inhibitors. Lack of randomized controlled trials and heterogenicity among performed studies limit obtaining definite conclusions. Data about new direct and indirect B cell and plasma cell depleting agents, proximal and terminal complement blockers, IL-6/IL-6R pathway inhibitors and antibody removal agents, among other promising drugs, are reviewed

 Fuente: Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2020, 26(28), 3468-3496

 Editorial: Bentham Science Publishers

 Fecha de publicación: 31/08/2020

 Nº de páginas: 29

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200610184433

 ISSN: 1381-6128,1873-4286

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200610184433