Abstract: Objective: To assess the effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in emergency department (ED) patients with
acute heart failure (AHF) on short term outcomes.
Methods: Patients from the EAHFE Registry (a multicenter, observational, multipurpose, cohort-designed database
including consecutive AHF patients in 41 Spanish EDs) were grouped based on NIV treatment (NIV+ and
NIV?groups). Using propensity score (PS) methodology, we identified two subgroups of patients matched by 38
covariates and compared regarding 30-day survival (primary outcome). Interaction was investigated for age, sex,
ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AHF precipitated by an acute coronary syndrome
(ACS), AHF classified as hypertensive or acute pulmonary edema (APE), and systolic blood pressure
(SBP). Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission; mechanical ventilation; in-hospital, 3-day
and 7-day mortality; and prolonged hospitalization (> 7 days).
Results: Of 11,152 patients from the EAHFE (age (SD): 80 (10) years; 55.5% women), 718 (6.4%) were NIV+
and had a higher 30-day mortality (HR=2.229; 95%CI=1.861?2.670) (p < 0.001). PS matching provided 2
groups of 490 patients each with no significant differences in 30-day mortality (HR=1.239;
95%CI=0.905?1.696) (p=0.182). Interaction analysis suggested a worse effect of NIV on elderly patients
(> 85 years, p < 0.001), AHF associated with ACS (p=0.045), and SBP < 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). No significant
differences were found in the secondary endpoints except for more prolonged hospitalizations in NIV+
patients (OR=1.445; 95%CI=1.122?1.862) (p=0.004).Conclusion: The use of NIV to treat AHF in ED is not associated with improved mortality outcomes and should be
cautious in old patients and those with ACS and hypotension.
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