Although some caregivers are using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) off label in hopes of improving cognition in young adults with Down syndrome (DS), nothing is known about its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in the DS pediatric population. We aimed to evaluate safety and tolerability of a dietary supplement containing EGCG and if EGCG improves cognitive and functional performance.
A total of 73 children with DS (aged 6-12 years) were randomized. Participants received 0.5% EGCG (10 mg/kg daily dose) or placebo for 6 months with 3 months follow up after treatment discontinuation.
In total, 72 children were treated and 66 completed the study. A total of 38 participants were included in the EGCG group and 35 in the placebo group. Of 72 treated participants, 62 (86%) had 229 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Of 37 participants in the EGCG group, 13 (35%) had 18 drug-related treatment-emergent AEs and 12 of 35 (34%) from the placebo group had 22 events. In the EGCG group, neither severe AEs nor increase in the incidence of AEs related to safety biomarkers were observed. Cognition and functionality were not improved compared with placebo. Secondary efficacy outcomes in girls point to a need for future work.
The use of EGCG is safe and well-tolerated in children with DS, but efficacy results do not support its use in this population.
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