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Lysosomes, caspase-mediated apoptosis, and cytoplasmic activation of P21, but not cell senescence, participate in a redundant fashion in embryonic morphogenetic cell death

Abstract: Micromass cultures of embryonic limb skeletal progenitors replicate the tissue remodelling processes observed during digit morphogenesis. Here, we have employed micromass cultures in an in vitro assay to study the nature of cell degeneration events associated with skeletogenesis. In the assay, "naive" progenitors obtained from the autopod aggregate to form chondrogenic nodules and those occupying the internodular spaces exhibit intense apoptosis and progressive accumulation of larger cells, showing intense SA-beta-Gal histochemical labelling that strictly overlaps with the distribution of neutral red vital staining. qPCR analysis detected intense upregulation of the p21 gene, but P21 immunolabelling showed cytoplasmic rather than the nuclear distribution expected in senescent cells. Semithin sections and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of canonical apoptotic cells, degenerated cell fragments in the process of phagocytic internalization by the neighbouring cells, and large vacuolated cells containing phagosomes. The immunohistochemical distribution of active caspase 3, cathepsin D, and beta-galactosidase together with the reduction in cell death by chemical inhibition of caspases (Q-VAD) and lysosomal cathepsin D (Pepstatin A) supported a redundant implication of both pathways in the dying process. Chemical inhibition of P21 (UC2288) revealed a complementary role of this factor in the dying process. In contrast, treatment with the senolytic drug Navitoclax increased cell death without changing the number of cells positive for SA-beta-Gal. We propose that this model of tissue remodelling involves the cooperative activation of multiple degradation routes and, most importantly, that positivity for SA-beta-Gal reflects the occurrence of phagocytosis, supporting the rejection of cell senescence as a defining component of developmental tissue remodelling.

 Autoría: Duarte-Olivenza C., Moran G., Hurle J.M., Lorda-Diez C.I., Montero J.A.,

 Fuente: Cell Death and Disease, 2023, 14, 813

 Editorial: Nature Publishing Group

 Año de publicación: 2023

 Nº de páginas: 10

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.1038/s41419-023-06326-6

 ISSN: 2041-4889

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-023-06326-6