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Divergent differentiation of skeletal progenitors into cartilage and tendon: lessons from the embryonic limb

Abstract: Repairing damaged cartilage and tendons is a major challenge of regenerative medicine. There has been great progress in the past decade toward obtaining stem cells for regenerative purposes from a variety of sources. However, the development of procedures to direct and maintain the differentiation of progenitors into cartilage or tendon is still a hurdle to overcome in regenerative medicine of the musculoskeletal system. This is because connective tissues often lack stable phenotypes and retain plasticity to return to the initial stages of differentiation or to transdifferentiate into another connective tissue cell lineage. This makes it necessary to unravel the molecular basis that is responsible for the differentiation of connective tissue cell lineages. In this review, we summarize the investigations performed in the past two decades to unravel the signals that regulate the differentiation of skeletal cell progenitors into cartilage and tendons during embryonic limb development. The data obtained in those studies demonstrate that Tgf?, BMP, FGF, and Wnt establish a complex signaling network that directs the differentiation of skeletal cell progenitors. Remarkably, in the embryonic digit model, the divergent differentiation of progenitors depends on the temporal coordination of those signals, rather than being specified by an individual signaling pathway. Due to its potential medical relevance, we highlight the importance of the coordinate influence of the Tgf? and BMP pathways in the differentiation of cell progenitors into tendon or cartilage.

 Autoría: Lorda-Diez C., Montero J., Garcia-Porrero J., Hurle J.,

 Fuente: ACS Chemical Biology, 2014, 9(1), 72-79

 Editorial: American Chemical Society

 Año de publicación: 2014

 Nº de páginas: 8

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.1021/cb400713

 ISSN: 1554-8929,1554-8937

 Proyecto español: BFU2011-24169

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1021/cb400713v