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Abstract: Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute-onset, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system. It may be classified into 2 main subtypes: demyelinating (AIDP) and axonal (AMAN). This study aims to analyse the mechanisms of axonal damage in the early stages of GBS (within 10 days of onset).
Development: We analysed histological, electrophysiological, and imaging findings from patients with AIDP and AMAN, and compared them to those of an animal model of myelin P2 protein-induced experimental allergic neuritis. Inflammatory oedema of the spinal nerve roots and spinal nerves is the initial lesion in GBS. The spinal nerves of patients with fatal AIDP may show ischaemic lesions in the endoneurium, which suggests that endoneurial inflammation may increase endoneurial fluid pressure, reducing transperineurial blood flow, potentially leading to conduction failure and eventually to axonal degeneration. In patients with AMAN associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies, nerve conduction block secondary to nodal sodium channel dysfunction may affect the proximal, intermediate, and distal nerve trunks. In addition to the mechanisms involved in AIDP, active axonal degeneration in AMAN may be associated with nodal axolemma disruption caused by anti-ganglioside antibodies.
Conclusion: Inflammatory oedema of the proximal nerve trunks can be observed in early stages of GBS, and it may cause nerve conduction failure and active axonal degeneration.
Fuente: Neurología 37 (2022) 466-479
Editorial: Elsevier Doyma
Fecha de publicación: 01/06/2022
Nº de páginas: 14
Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista
Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2020.08.001
JOSE ANGEL BERCIANO BLANCO