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Exploring trends and determinants of basic childhood vaccination coverage: empirical evidence over 41 years

Abstract: Vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most important prevention measures as a health strategy. This paper examines trends in basic childhood vaccination coverage and which country and time-dependent determinants may have influenced childhood immuniza tion rates (1-dose BCG, 1- and 3-dose DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis), 1-dose mea sles, and 3-dose polio) between 1980 and 2020 across 94 countries. We identify economic, inequality, demographic, health, education, labor market, environmental, and political stabil ity factors of immunization. To do this, we use data from the annual WHO and United Nations International Children?s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) coverage estimates. The empirical analysis consists of generalized estimating equation models to assess relation ships between immunization rates and socioeconomic factors. Additionally, we follow the Barro and Sala-i-Mart?´n approach to identify conditional convergence. Our findings show the strongest positive statistically significant association between immunization rates and GDP per capita, as well as births attended by skilled health staff. Moreover, our research demonstrates conditional convergence, indicating that countries converge towards different steady states. The present study brings new insights to investigating the determinants of childhood vaccination coverage and provides significant implications for health policies

 Authorship: Lanza-León P., Cantarero-Prieto D., Pascual-Sáez M.,

 Fuente: PLoS One, 2024, 19(3), e0300404

 Publisher: Public Library of Science

 Year of publication: 2024

 No. of pages: 17

 Publication type: Article

 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0300404

 ISSN: 1932-6203

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