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Towards a Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus index: A review of nutrient profile models as a fundamental pillar of food and nutrition security

Abstract: The Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus approach should be promoted as a tool for sustainable management of resources through the interconnection of these three fundamental pillars. Particularly, food security must ensure healthy and balanced diets for everyone, but selecting individual indicators to assess all slants covered by this element is not an easy task. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold, to review nutrient profiling (NP) models that allow to categorize foods and evaluate diets based on their nutritional quality, and to choose the most appropriate model to be used within a WEF nexus index. To address this issue, a total of 159 documents were assessed, appraising the geographic distribution, and time evolution of the publications, as well as the characteristics and potential applications of the NP systems. The review concludes that the NRF9.3. model is the most liable option to be used in a WEF nexus index, presenting the best characteristics by means of the definition of scores and thresholds, and the use of an 'across-the-board' criteria and a reference quantity of 100 kcal, alongside offering higher ability to assess diets and foods than the other competitive model (HEI) through the evaluation of nutrients to encourage instead of foods. A secondary outcome of the review is the identification of the NP models as a useful tool to enable institutions with information to establish policies in the field of public health and facilitating the decision-making process according to the current healthy claims

 Autoría: Fernández-Ríos A., Laso J., Campos C., Ruiz-Salmón I., Hoehn D., Cristóbal J., Batlle-Bayer L., Bala A., Fullana-i-Palmer P., Puig R., Aldaco R., Margallo M.,

 Fuente: Science of the Total Environment, 2021, 789, 147936

 Editorial: Elsevier

 Fecha de publicación: 01/10/2021

 Nº de páginas: 14

 Tipo de publicación: Artículo de Revista

 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147936

 ISSN: 0048-9697,1879-1026

 Proyecto español: PID2019-104925RB

 Url de la publicación: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147936

Autoría

CRISTINA CAMPOS HERRERO

ISRAEL RUIZ SALMÓN

DANIEL HOEHN CAPRACCI

JORGE CRISTOBAL GARCIA

LAURA BATLLE BAYER

ALBA BALA GALA

PERE FULLANA I PALMER

RITA PUIG VIDAL